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Privacy Model

Blockchain transactions are pseudonymous, ergo the strongest privacy model we can support is pseudonymity. The pseudonym is the address derived from the public key. SealVault never shares users' pseudonyms with anyone.

Multiple pseudonyms of a user may be tied together by observing transaction patterns between addresses or based on IP addresses. Correlation based on transactions is permanent by default and observable by anybody. Correlation based on IP addresses may be permanent, but only available to blockchain API providers.


The privacy boundary in SealVault is the profile. A profile is a collection of addresses. A profile can contain addresses from multiple chains, because cross-chain bridging may correlate addresses from different chains.

Users can only send tokens between addresses in the same profile within SealVault. In the future, users will be able to prove claims between profiles with zero-knowledge proofs without correlating addresses between different profiles.

Users may correlate addresses in different profiles outside of SealVault. We can't prevent this, but we warn users against it. We also can't prevent correlating addresses based on IP addresses.

Profiles may be merged, but they may not be split.

When the user switches their active profile, the SealVault iOS app clears browser history.