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Dapp Keys


Dapp keys are a novel isolation mechanism for Web3 clients. As the name suggests, with dapp keys one key is only allowed to approve transactions for one dapp without restrictions. This isolation enables automatic signature approval and mitigates damage from compromised dapps. Data portability is supported in cross-connect mode.

What Is a Dapp?

A dapp is a website that interacts with blockchain smart contracts through its front end code. A dapp is identified by its registrable domain.

More specifically, when deciding whether a key may perform a transaction originating from a dapp, we consider two origins to belong to the same dapp if they are schemefully same-site. We only allow connecting dapps that were not served over HTTPS in developer mode.

For example, and would be considered the same dapp, but and would be different dapps because is in the public suffix list.

The rationale for using the registrable domain is that that's the unit under the control of the dapp developer. Further isolation would not improve security, but it could cause usability issues.

Embedded Contexts

As explained in the new cookie RFC draft:

The URI displayed in a user agent's address bar is the only security context directly exposed to users, and therefore the only signal users can reasonably rely upon to determine whether or not they trust a particular website. The origin of that URI represents the context in which a user most likely believes themselves to be interacting.

Therefore, we derive the dapp identifier from the top-level origin for dapps displayed in embedded browsing contexts.

For example, the decentralized asset management platform, dHEDGE embeds other dapps like Aave and Uniswap on In the dapp key model, the identifier for both the dHEDGE and the embedded Aave and Uniswap dapps would be

Automatic Signature Approval

When the in-page provider connects a dapp with its own dapp key, the in-page provider can automatically approve signature requests, since the dapp only has access to assets the user explicitly trusted it with by transferring them to the dapp key address.

Automatic transaction approval is only enabled for the top-level origin and for embedded contexts that are schemefully same-site for the top level origin.

Changing Dapp for Address

The user can change the identifier of a dapp associated with an address if there are only negligible native tokens or fungible tokens and no non-fungible tokens held by that address. This means that users can

  1. Create an address and associate a dapp with it later which is important to be able to sign up for off-chain allow lists prior to mints for example.
  2. Use an address with a different dapp if they transfer existing funds away first.

The requirement to transfer funds to a different address before changing the dapp for an address allows us to let users handle unforeseen circumstances while mitigating social engineering attacks.


Aren't dapp keys going to kill composability?

No, they won't. See the data portability section of the in-page provider document for more info.

Isn't having to send coins for transaction fees to many addresses going to be expensive?

Depends on the blockchain. On chains like Polygon PoS and Solana with negligible transaction fees this is not an issue. On Ethereum L1 transaction fees could be prohibitive and users will use cross-connect more. EIP-3074 would fix this by letting the user pay for gas fees from their wallet address.

Isn't having to send coins for transaction fees to many addresses going to be annoying?

This is a UX issue under the control of the app. We automate gas top-ups to make this convenient.

Note that EIP-3074 would eliminate the need to send tokens for transaction fees by letting the user pay for gas fees from their wallet address.

Can't two front ends hosted on different domains call the same contract?

Yes, but transactions cannot be approved with the same key for dapps on both domains in the dapp key model.

Can non-transferable tokens be used with multiple dapps?

Yes, with cross-connect.

Is it possible to have multiple keys per dapp?

Yes. This is a privacy question detailed in our privacy model.

What if a hosting provider that dapps use for their front end is not added to the public suffix list?

That is a security vulnerability of the hosting provider. Dapp keys mitigate hosting provider vulnerabilities by limiting the effect to dapps using said provider.

What if a hosting provider wants to use a domain in the public suffix list to host their own dapp?

We disallow that. A domain in the public suffix list shouldn't host anything.

What if a domain that was initially used for one dapp is added to the public suffix list later?

In this case the dapp becomes invalid and users have to change the dapp for the address to reflect the new domain.

What if a suffix is removed from the public suffix list?

We maintain our own append only version of the public suffix list to prevent sharing keys for dapps that used to resolve to different registrable domains.